Women's lifestyle and health

Women's lifestyle and health is a large study focusing on health outcomes such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and some chronic diseases.

Project description

Oral contraceptives, use of hormone replacement therapy, dietary habits and other lifestyle factors affect the risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases in young women. Starting in 1991, a comprehensive questionnaire was mailed to 96,000 Swedish women aged 30-49 years.

Approximately 50,000 completed questionnaires were returned providing detailed information on a wide range of lifestyle factors with a focus on oral contraceptive use, diet, UV light exposure, reproductive factors and familial occurrence of cancer. This study is strictly coordinated with a similar study among 60,000 young women in Norway; apart from the dietary component, the questionnaires are identical and joint analyses are planned. In 2003 a second questionnaire was sent to all women to update information on lifestyle changes as well as to access psychiatric morbidity. Currently analysis is ongoing for several lifestyle factors and cancers of the breast, ovarium, endometrial, colorectal, skin, skin melanoma, lymphomas, as well as cardiovascular outcomes (myocardial infarction, haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke), psychiatric diseases, sleeping disorders and overall mortality.

Several analyses are being performed on different exposures, such as oral contraceptives, BMI, changes in body size and shape, UV radiation exposure, alcohol consumption, smoking, and risk of different cancer sites and overall mortality. The data management and analysis of the follow-up questionnaire is ongoing.

Project period: 1991-ongoing
Main financing: Swedish Cancer Society, Swedish Research Council, Pharmaceutical companies (for the initiation of the study)

Project leader

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Sven Sandin


Project collaborators

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Hans-Olov Adami

Professor Emeritus/Emerita


  • Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics - KI: Hans-Olov Adami (co-PI), Marie Löf (nutritionist), Sven Sandin (Statistician), Pouran Almstedt (data base manager)
  • University of Tromsø, Norway: Eiliv Lund, Merethe Kumle, Inger Gram, Merethe Kumle, and Tonje Braaten (Tromsø, Norway)
  • Oslo University, Department of Statistics: Marit Veierod
  • University of Auckland, New Zealand: Prof. Robert Scragg (Head of dept. of Epidemiology) and Alistair Stewart (Senior statistician)
  • University of Birmingham, UK : Prof. Maurice Zeegers
  • University of Queensland, Australia : Prof. Gita Mishra


Marie Löf, professor
Pouran Almstedt, database manager


Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status.
Jung S, Spiegelman D, Baglietto L, Bernstein L, Boggs D, van den Brandt P, et al
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2013 Feb;105(3):219-36

InterLACE: A New International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Women's Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events.
Mishra G, Anderson D, Schoenaker D, Adami H, Avis N, Brown D, et al
Maturitas 2013 Mar;74(3):235-40

Dimensions of psychotic experiences among women in the general population.
Therman S, Suvisaari J, Hultman CM
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2014 Mar;23(1):62-8

A pooled analysis of waist circumference and mortality in 650,000 adults.
Cerhan JR, Moore SC, Jacobs EJ, Kitahara CM, Rosenberg PS, Adami HO, et al
Mayo Clin. Proc. 2014 Mar;89(3):335-45

Association between class III obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m2) and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.
Kitahara CM, Flint AJ, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Bernstein L, Brotzman M, MacInnis RJ, et al
PLoS Med. 2014 Jul;11(7):e1001673

Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
Veierød MB, Couto E, Lund E, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Int. J. Cancer 2014 Jul;135(2):413-22

Endometrial cancer in relation to coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption: a prospective cohort study among middle-aged women in Sweden.
Weiderpass E, Sandin S, Lof M, Oh JK, Inoue M, Shimazu T, et al
Nutr Cancer 2014 ;66(7):1132-43

Body size and multiple myeloma mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.
Teras LR, Kitahara CM, Birmann BM, Hartge PA, Wang SS, Robien K, et al
Br. J. Haematol. 2014 Sep;166(5):667-76

Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.
Felix AS, Gaudet MM, La Vecchia C, Nagle CM, Shu XO, Weiderpass E, et al
Int. J. Cancer 2015 Mar;136(5):E410-22

Infertility and incident endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis from the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium (E2C2).
Yang HP, Cook LS, Weiderpass E, Adami HO, Anderson KE, Cai H, et al
Br. J. Cancer 2015 Mar;112(5):925-33

Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women.
Roswall N, Eriksson U, Sandin S, Löf M, Olsen A, Skeie G, et al
Food Nutr Res 2015 ;59():26336

No Association between Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index and Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Swedish Cohort Study.
Roswall N, Li Y, Kyrø C, Sandin S, Löf M, Adami HO, et al
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Apr;24(4):755-7

Anthropometry and head and neck cancer:a pooled analysis of cohort data.
Gaudet MM, Kitahara CM, Newton CC, Bernstein L, Reynolds P, Weiderpass E, et al
Int J Epidemiol 2015 Apr;44(2):673-81

Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and breast cancer risk: results from a Swedish cohort study.
Li Y, Roswall N, Sandin S, Ström P, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Cancer Causes Control 2015 Jun;26(6):893-902

Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.
Roswall N, Sandin S, Löf M, Skeie G, Olsen A, Adami HO, et al
Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2015 Jun;30(6):509-17

Leisure time physical activity and mortality: a detailed pooled analysis of the dose-response relationship.
Arem H, Moore SC, Patel A, Hartge P, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Visvanathan K, et al
JAMA Intern Med 2015 Jun;175(6):959-67

Prospective study of coffee consumption and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality in Swedish women.
Löf M, Sandin S, Yin L, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2015 Sep;30(9):1027-34

Prospective study of dietary inflammatory index and risk of breast cancer in Swedish women.
Shivappa N, Sandin S, Löf M, Hébert JR, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Br. J. Cancer 2015 Sep;113(7):1099-103

No association between adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and cardiovascular disease amongst Swedish women: a cohort study.
Roswall N, Sandin S, Scragg R, Löf M, Skeie G, Olsen A, et al
J. Intern. Med. 2015 Nov;278(5):531-41

Prospective study of breast cancer in relation to coffee, tea and caffeine in Sweden.
Oh JK, Sandin S, Ström P, Löf M, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Int. J. Cancer 2015 Oct;137(8):1979-89

Central adiposity, obesity during early adulthood, and pancreatic cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of cohort studies.
Genkinger JM, Kitahara CM, Bernstein L, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Brotzman M, Elena JW, et al
Ann. Oncol. 2015 Nov;26(11):2257-66

Alcohol consumption, body mass index and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status: Women' Lifestyle and Health Study.
Shin A, Sandin S, Lof M, Margolis KL, Kim K, Couto E, et al
BMC Cancer 2015 Nov;15():881

Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.
Li Y, Roswall N, Ström P, Sandin S, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Br. J. Nutr. 2015 Dec;114(12):2093-102

Anthropometric Factors and Thyroid Cancer Risk by Histological Subtype: Pooled Analysis of 22 Prospective Studies.
Kitahara C, McCullough M, Franceschi S, Rinaldi S, Wolk A, Neta G, et al
Thyroid 2016 02;26(2):306-18

Prospective Study of Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.
Hedelin M, Löf M, Sandin S, Adami H, Weiderpass E
Nutr Cancer 2016 ;68(3):388-95

Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor status: in a pooled analysis of 20 studies.
Jung S, Wang M, Anderson K, Baglietto L, Bergkvist L, Bernstein L, et al
Int J Epidemiol 2016 06;45(3):916-28

Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults.
Moore S, Lee I, Weiderpass E, Campbell P, Sampson J, Kitahara C, et al
JAMA Intern Med 2016 06;176(6):816-25

International pooled study on diet and bladder cancer: the bladder cancer, epidemiology and nutritional determinants (BLEND) study: design and baseline characteristics.
Goossens ME, Isa F, Brinkman M, Mak D, Reulen R, Wesselius A, et al
Arch Public Health 2016 ;74():30

Development and External Validation of a Melanoma Risk Prediction Model Based on Self-assessed Risk Factors.
Vuong K, Armstrong BK, Weiderpass E, Lund E, Adami HO, Veierod MB, et al
JAMA Dermatol 2016 08;152(8):889-96

Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Wentzensen N, Poole EM, Trabert B, White E, Arslan AA, Patel AV, et al
J. Clin. Oncol. 2016 08;34(24):2888-98

The InterLACE study: Design, data harmonization and characteristics across 20 studies on women's health.
Mishra GD, Chung HF, Pandeya N, Dobson AJ, Jones L, Avis NE, et al
Maturitas 2016 Oct;92():176-185

Alcohol consumption over time and mortality in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort.
Licaj I, Sandin S, Skeie G, Adami HO, Roswall N, Weiderpass E
BMJ Open 2016 11;6(11):e012862

Changes in body mass index and waist circumference and concurrent mortality among Swedish women.
Roswall N, Li Y, Sandin S, Ström P, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 01;25(1):215-222

Determinants of long-term weight change among middle-aged Swedish women.
El Reda D, Ström P, Sandin S, Oh JK, Adami HO, Löf M, et al
Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 02;25(2):476-485

Early menarche, nulliparity and the risk for premature and early natural menopause.
Mishra GD, Pandeya N, Dobson AJ, Chung HF, Anderson D, Kuh D, et al
Hum. Reprod. 2017 03;32(3):679-686

Body Size Indicators and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Individual-Level Data from 19 Prospective Cohort Studies.
Campbell PT, Newton CC, Kitahara CM, Patel AV, Hartge P, Koshiol J, et al
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2017 04;26(4):597-606

Cohort Profile: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort.
Roswall N, Sandin S, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Int J Epidemiol 2017 04;46(2):e8

Breastfeeding and Endometrial Cancer Risk: An Analysis From the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.
Jordan SJ, Na R, Johnatty SE, Wise LA, Adami HO, Brinton LA, et al
Obstet Gynecol 2017 06;129(6):1059-1067

Pooled analysis of active cigarette smoking and invasive breast cancer risk in 14 cohort studies.
Gaudet MM, Carter BD, Brinton LA, Falk RT, Gram IT, Luo J, et al
Int J Epidemiol 2017 06;46(3):881-893

Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences.
Pilecka I, Sandin S, Reichenberg A, Scragg RKR, David A, Weiderpass E
Front Psychiatry 2017 ;8():107

Prediagnostic Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Survival: A Pooled Analysis of 12 Cohort Studies.
Yu D, Takata Y, Smith-Warner SA, Blot W, Sawada N, White E, et al
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2017 07;26(7):1060-1070

The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium.
Nichols HB, Schoemaker MJ, Wright LB, McGowan C, Brook MN, McClain KM, et al
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2017 09;26(9):1360-1369

Associations between sun exposure and other lifestyle variables in Swedish women.
Scragg R, Sandin S, Löf M, Adami HO, Weiderpass E
Cancer Causes Control 2017 Sep;28(9):985-996

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