The Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC)
The SMC is multidisciplinary longitudinal project on the association of lifestyle and genetic factors with morbidity and mortality in middle-aged and elderly women. This large population-based prospective cohort was established in 1987 in Central Sweden.
Between 1987 and 1990, all women who lived in the Uppsala County of central Sweden and in the adjacent Västmanland County and were born between 1914 and 1948, received an invitation by mail to participate in a mammography screening program. The invitation included a six-page questionnaire that sought information on diet and alcohol intake (67-item FFQ), parity, age at first childbirth, family history of breast cancer, weight, height, education level, and marital status. A total of 66,651 women returned a completed questionnaire (74% response rate). See questionnaire 1987-90 below.
In 1997 a second questionnaire was sent to all cohort members who were still living in the study area. The aim was to update the information about diet. The questionnaire was also extended to include information on physical activity, medical history, age at menarche, history of oral contraceptive use, age at menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking history and use of dietary supplements (70% response rate). See questionnaire 1997 below.
In 2008, a third questionnaire was sent to all cohort members (n=48,263) who had completed the 1987 FFQ (response rate 63%). The 2008 questionnaire collected information on general health status, disease diagnoses, current body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, dental health, medication use, sleep habits, urine and bowel habits, family history of selected diseases, stress, and social support. See Health questionnaire below.
In 2009 a fourth questionnaire was sent to cohort members who completed the 2008 questionnaire (84% response rate). The 2009 questionnaire collected information on diet (132-item FFQ), dietary supplements, smoking, physical activity, and sun habits. . See Lifestyle questionnaire below.