SweJEM: Low employment quality

A quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for a multidimensional construct of low employment quality from 1992-2017 in five-year intervals (1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2012, 2017). The JEM is also stratified by age strata and gender. The JEM gives the proportion of workers classified as having a low employment quality for each occupational code (NYK, SSYK96 and SSYK2012).

The JEM was developed based on a theoretical and empirical model of low employment quality, sometimes called precarious employment, as a multidimensional construct including the following three dimensions: employment insecurity, income inadequacy, and lack of rights and protection. (Kreshpaj et al 2020) 

The JEM describes an index of five items corresponding to three dimensions of low employment quality: contractual relationship insecurity, contractual temporariness, multiple jobs/sectors, income level, and lack of unionization. The index ranges between -10 and +2 and the cut-off for low employment quality is below -3. (Jonsson et al 2021) 

STATA do-files with complete source code is published on github 


What is precarious employment? A systematic review of definitions and operationalizations from quantitative and qualitative studies. 
Kreshpaj B, Orellana C, Burström B, Davis L, Hemmingsson T, Johansson G, Kjellberg K, Jonsson J, Wegman DH, Bodin T 
Scand J Work Environ Health 2020 May;46(3):235-247 

Exploring multidimensional operationalizations of precarious employment in Swedish register data - a typological approach and a summative score approach. 
Jonsson J, Matilla-Santander N, Kreshpaj B, Orellana C, Johansson G, Burström B, Alderling M, Peckham T, Kjellberg K, Selander J, Östergren PO, Bodin T 
Scand J Work Environ Health 2021 Mar;47(2):117-126 



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Theo Bodin

Assistant Professor
Anna Persson