Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, ETUQ
What is ETUQ?
Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, ETUQ, is used in a structured interview where the interviewer marks the respondent’s replies to each question.
The interview focuses on everyday technologies such as remote controls, household electronics, cell phones and ticket vending machines. The ETUQ captures the extent to which people 1/ perceive technologies as relevant, 2/ use and experience difficulties when using everyday technologies, and 3/ do not use technologies that they find relevant, or earlier have used. ETUQ has so far been most used in research concerning older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia in comparison to older adults with no known cognitive impairments. It has also been used in research with persons with mental retardation as well as persons with acquired brain injury. It has been translated from Swedish to several other languages and it is used in international research collaborations. A short version, SETUQ (Short ETUQ) has also been developed.
The development of ETUQ was initiated in 2002 by Louise Nygård, in collaboration with clinical occupational therapists and research colleagues. The point of departure was that technology had become increasingly present as a part of more and more activities in homes and in society, and inhabitants need to be able to master an increasing amount and variety of technologies in order to participate in everyday life activities. This may cause frustration to many people, while everyday technology also can simplify our daily lives in many ways. Knowledge is needed about how this development of the technological landscape is perceived by people with and without cognitive impairments, what technological objects and services they consider needed, what technological objects and services they use and with what level of difficulty. The quality of the first version of the ETUQ was investigated by Lena Rosenberg in the PhD-thesis in 2009. Anders Kottorp had, and still has, a particularly important role in this work, especially in the development of the questionnaire into an instrument.
What is ETUQ’s potential contribution to clinical work?
- ETUQ offers a systematic method for investigation of individuals’ as well as groups’ perceived difficulty in the use of everyday technologies, in the homes as well as in society. ETUQ can be a complement to assessments within the field of activity (ADL/IADL/social activities) but it does not replace these.
- ETUQ is a method for capturing level of perceived difficulty when using everyday technology in clients who often are independent and where subtle changes in daily life activities are difficult to detect by the use of traditional clinical assessments.
- ETUQ can contribute by identifying target areas for interventions; occupational therapy interventions as well as others.
- ETUQ offers an alternative means of communicating with a client, because clients may find it less intrusive to discuss perceived ability to use everyday technology than their ability to manage ADL. Moreover, in the ETUQ interview, the client has an opportunity to present her/himself as a person beyond the traditional patient role.
- ETUQ is an evidence based method, validated for multiple clinical populations.
How can I get access to the ETUQ?
As many clinically active occupational therapists in Sweden have shown interest in the ETUQ/SETUQ, we have offered education days a couple of times per years since 2010. The education day is free of charge, but in exchange each participating OT commits to submitting a minimum of 5 ETUQ interviews to our database within 6 months after the education. This is important as it allows us to continue developing the instrument and make sure that it works as intended in different populations. When somebody wishes to use ETUQ in research, an agreement is made between the researchers and KI/Louise Nygård in each particular case. This agreement also outlines how ETUQ/SETUQ data will be shared.
Planned education days: fall 2016 (dates will be announced later), in English, at the division of occupational Therapy, KI, Flemingsberg. Deadline: announced later.
ETUQ in research
ETUQ has its origin and home in the research group Cognitive ACcessibility and Technology Use when ageing in home and Society, CACTUS (länk), at the Division of Occupational Therapy, NVS, Karolinska Institutet (länk). The research is part of a research programme financially supported by FORTE and others. Below you will find a short summary of the programme.
Living and ageing with cognitive impairments in the technological landscapes of homes and public places
In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on participation in society for people with different kinds of functional impairments. This requires an accessible society. Much focus has been placed on physical accessibility, while little is known of the cognitive aspects of accessibility. Technology use is very important in today’s society, and peoples’ participation in everyday life are increasingly influenced by the development and use of technology; both Everyday Technology, ET (e.g. cell phones, electronic household equipment, cash machines) and Assistive Technology, AT (e.g. electronic calendars and reminders). This on-going research programme’s departure point is in the identified gap between the technologically developed society and the possibility for people living and ageing with cognitive impairments to manage technology, and to access and use public spaces, part of the accessibility problem being related to technology.
The first track investigates the match between technology users with cognitive impairment and the requirements of technologies, with the aim to critically investigate the conditions for use, adaptation and development of technology to meet these users’ needs and desires, to identify mismatches and consequences of these, as well as to identify and try out improvements. The second track; access to and usability of places and activities in public space, particularly outside the home: promoting engagement and participation, aims at providing new knowledge of the conditions for participation in public space and society outside the home for people with cognitive impairment, and to identify possible avenues to increase accessibility and provide relevant support. In both tracks, the research is undertaken in collaboration with different disciplines nationally and internationally, and in close collaboration with the health care practice field, aiming at continuous development through knowledge translation and implementation of new knowledge.
Hedman A, Nygård L, Malinowsky C, Almkvist O, Kottorp A. (2016). Changing everyday activities and technology use in mild cognitive impairment. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(2), 111-119.
Malinowsky, C. & Larsson Lund, M. (2016). The match between everyday technology in public space and the ability of working-aged people with ABI to use it. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(1) 26–34 doi: 10.1177/0308022614563943
Nygård, L. & Rosenberg, L. (2016). How attention to everyday technology could contribute to modern occupational therapy. a focus group study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(8), 467-474.
Ryd, C., Nygård, L., Malinowsky, C., Öhman, A. & Kottorp, A. (Published online before print April 14, 2016). Can the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire predict overall functional level among older adults with mild cognitive impairment or mild-stage Alzheimer’s disease? – A pilot study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. doi: 10.1111/scs.12330.
Kottorp A., Nygård L., Hedman A., Öhman A., Malinowsky C., Rosenberg L., Lindqvist E., & Ryd C. (Published online before print March 16, 2016). Everyday technology use of older adults: an occupational justice issue for some? Journal of Occupational Science.
Fallahpour, M., Kottorp, A., Nygård, L. & Larsson Lund, M. (2015). Participation after acquired brain injury: associations with everyday technology and activities in daily life. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22(5), 366-76.
Hedman A, Nygård L, Almkvist O, Kottorp A. (2015). Amount and type of everyday technology use over time in older adults with cognitive impairment. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22(3), 196-206.
Malinowsky, C., Kottorp, A., Tanemura, R., Asaba, E., Nagao, T., Noda, K., Sagara, J., Bontje, P., Rosenberg, L. & Nygård, L. (2015). Validation of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire in a Japanese context. Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy, 26, 1-8.
Malinowsky, C., Patomella, A-H., Rosenberg, L., Kottorp, A. & Nygård, L. (2015) Changes in the technological landscape over time: Everyday technologies' relevance and difficulty levels as perceived by older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Technology and Disability, 27(3), 91-101.
Nygård L, Kottorp A, Rosenberg L. (2015). Making use of research: Clinical views on an evaluation of everyday technology use. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 22, 24–32.
Ryd, C., Nygård, L., Malinowsky, C, Öhman, A. & Kottorp, A. (2015). Associations between performance of activities of daily living and everyday technology use among older adults with mild stage Alzheimer’s disease or Mild Cognitive Impairment. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22(1), 33-42.
Fallahpour, M., Kottorp, A. Nygård, L. Larsson Lund M. (2014). Perceived difficulty in using everyday technology among persons with acquired brain injury of different severity: a comparison with controls. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 46 (7), 635-641. DOI: 10.2340/16501977-1818
Hällgren, M., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2014). Everyday technology use among people with intellectual disability – relevance, perceived difficulty, and influencing factors. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 21(3), 210-218.
Larsson Lund, M., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2014). Perceived difficulty in the use of everyday technology: relationships to everyday functioning in people with acquired brain injury with a special focus on returning to work. Disability and Rehabilitation, 36(19), 1618-1625.
Malinowsky, C. & Larsson Lund, M. (2014). The association between perceived and observed ability to use everyday technology in working age people with ABI. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 21(6):465-72. doi:10.3109/ 11038128.2014.919020
Malinowsky C, Nygård L, Kottorp A. (2014). Using a screening tool to predict potential use of e-health services for older people with and without cognitive impairment. Ageing and Mental Health, 18 (3), 340-345. doi:10.1080/13607863.2013.832731
Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2014). Engagement in IADLs, social activities and use of everyday technology in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 77(11),565-573.
Hedman, A., Nygård, L., Almkvist, O. & Kottorp, A. (2013). Patterns of functioning in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a two-year study focusing on everyday technology use. Aging and Mental Health, 17(6), 679-88. DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2013.777396.
Malinowsky, C., Kottorp, A. Nygård, L. (2013). Everyday technologies’ levels of challenge when used by older adults with and without cognitive impairment – comparison of self-perceived versus observed difficulty estimates. Technology and Disability, 25(3), 167-176. doi: 10.3233/TAD-130380
Nygård, L., Pantzar, M., Uppgard, B. & Kottorp, A. (2012). Detection of disability in older adults with MCI or Alzheimer’s disease through assessment of perceived difficulty in using everyday technology. Aging and Mental Health,16 (3-4), 361-371. DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2011.605055.
Hällgren, M., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2011). Technology and everyday functioning in people with intellectual disabilities: A Rasch analysis of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(6), 610-620. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01419.x
Kottorp, A. & Nygård, L. (2011). Development of a short form assessment for everyday technology used with older adults with MCI or Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 11(5), 647-655. DOI: 10.1586/ERN.11.55
Rosenberg, L., Kottorp, A., Winblad, B., & Nygård, L. (2009). Perceived difficulty in everyday technology use among older adults with or without cognitive deficits. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 16, 216-226. DOI: 10.3109/11038120802684299
Rosenberg, L., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2009). Everyday Technology Usage (ETUQ) – evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new assessment of competence in technology use. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 29 (2), 52-62.