Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, ETUQ
Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, ETUQ, is a questionnaire that captures a person’s perceived ability to use everyday technology.
The interview focuses on everyday technologies such as remote controls, household electronics, cell phones and ticket vending machines. The ETUQ captures the extent to which people:
- perceive technologies as relevant,
- use and experience difficulties when using everyday technologies,
- do not use technologies that they find relevant, or earlier have used.
ETUQ has so far been most used in research concerning older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia in comparison to older adults with no known cognitive impairments. It has also been used in research with persons with intellectual disability as well as persons with acquired brain injury. It has been translated from Swedish to several other languages and it is used in international research collaborations.
The development of ETUQ was initiated in 2002 by Louise Nygård, in collaboration with clinical occupational therapists and research colleagues. The point of departure was that technology had become increasingly present as a part of more and more activities in homes and in society, and inhabitants need to be able to master an increasing amount and variety of technologies in order to participate in everyday life activities. This may cause frustration to many people, while everyday technology also can simplify our daily lives in many ways. Knowledge is needed about how this development of the technological landscape is perceived by people with and without cognitive impairments, what technological objects and services they consider needed, what technological objects and services they use and with what level of difficulty. The quality of the first version of the ETUQ was investigated by Lena Rosenberg in the PhD-thesis in 2009. Anders Kottorp had, and still has, a particularly important role in this work, especially in the development of the questionnaire into an instrument.
What is ETUQ’s potential contribution to clinical work?
- ETUQ offers a systematic method for investigation of individuals’ as well as groups’ perceived difficulty in the use of everyday technologies, in the homes as well as in society. ETUQ can be a complement to assessments within the field of activity (ADL/IADL/social activities) but it does not replace these.
- ETUQ is a method for capturing level of perceived difficulty when using everyday technology in clients who often are independent and where subtle changes in daily life activities are difficult to detect by the use of traditional clinical assessments.
- ETUQ can contribute by identifying target areas for interventions; occupational therapy interventions as well as others.
- ETUQ offers an alternative means of communicating with a client, because clients may find it less intrusive to discuss perceived ability to use everyday technology than their ability to manage ADL. Moreover, in the ETUQ interview, the client has an opportunity to present her/himself as a person beyond the traditional patient role.
- ETUQ is an evidence based method, validated for multiple clinical populations.
How can I get access to the ETUQ?
To use ETUQ you need to take a short course. As both researchers from around the world and clinical occupational therapists in Sweden have shown interest in the ETUQ, we have offered an education day a couple of times per year since 2010.
In order to increase the availability of the ETUQ, we have now developed an online-course in English. Read more about the course at the Swedish Association of Occupational Therapists’ digital learning platform, Akademin.
ETUQ in research
ETUQ has its origin and home in the research group Cognitive ACcessibility and Technology Use when ageing in home and Society, CACTUS, at the Division of Occupational Therapy, NVS, Karolinska Institutet. Below you will find a short summary of the programme on living and ageing with cognitive impairments in the technological landscapes of homes and public places.
In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on participation in society for people with different kinds of functional impairments. This requires an accessible society. Much focus has been placed on physical accessibility, while little is known of the cognitive aspects of accessibility, particularly when it comes to public space. Technology use is very important in today’s society, and peoples’ participation in everyday life are increasingly influenced by the development and use of technology; both digital and analogue Everyday Technologies, ET (e.g. smart phones and cell phones, electronic household equipment, cash machines, Internet) as well as Assistive Technologies, AT (e.g. electronic calendars and reminders).
Earlier we presented our research as organised in two tracks. The first track studied the match between people with cognitive impairment as users of technology and the specific demands that technological artefacts and services put on users. The second track focused on accessibility and usability of public spaces, and how engagement and participation can be facilitated and supported for people with cognitive disabilities.
These two tracks have over time come to overlap more and more, and they can no longer be separated. That is why we now present our research simply through our research projects, joined by the programme heading. The long term goal of this research program is to develop new knowledge that can facilitate better support and increased accessibility and usability of ETs and ATs, as well as of activities and places within and outside the home, for people who live and age with cognitive disability. By this we wish to contribute to improved participation in activities in homes and societies, in work as well as in leisure, for these people.
- Gaber, S., Nygård, L., Brorsson A, Kottorp, A Charlesworth, G, Wallcook, S. & Malinowsky, C. (2020). Visualizing Social Participation in relation to Everyday Technology Use and Social Deprivation: A Mixed Methods Study Among Older People With and Without Dementia in the UK. IJERPH.
- Gaber, S., Nygård, L., Charlesworth, G., Kottorp, A., Wallcook, S. & Malinowsky, C. (Accepter 22 April 2020) Perceived risks, concession travel pass access and everyday technology use for out-of-home participation: cross-sectional interviews among older people in the UK. BMC Geriatrics.
- Malinowsky, C., Nygård, L., Pantzar, M. & Kottorp, A. (2020). Test-retest reliability of the short version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (S-ETUQ). Accepted for publication in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy.
- Köttl H; Fallahpour, M., Hedman. A., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (early online 22 March 2020). Depression, everyday technology use and life satisfaction in older adults with cognitive impairments: a cross-sectional exploratory study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences.
- Wallcook S, Nygård L, Kottorp A, Gaber S, Charlesworth G, Malinowsky C. (Accepted) The perceived challenge of everyday technologies in Sweden, the United States, and England: exploring differential item functioning in the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire. SJOT.
- Wallcook, S., Nygård, L., Kottorp, A. & Malinowsky, C. (online July 2019). The use of Everyday Information Communication Technologies in the lives of older adults living with and without dementia in Sweden. Assistive Technology, DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2019.1644685
- Bartels, S.L., Assander, S., Patomella, A.-H., Jamnadas-Khoda, J. & Malinowsky, C. (2019). Do you observe what I perceive? The relationship between two perspectives on the ability of people with cognitive impairments to use everyday technology. Ageing & Mental Health, early online. doi:10.1080/13607863.2019.1609902.
- Gaber, Nygård, L., Brorsson, A., Kottorp, A. & Malinowsky, C. (2019). Everyday Technologies and Public Space Participation among People with and without Dementia. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, Vol. 86(5) 400-411 DOI: 10.1177/0008417419837764.
- Hedman, A., Kottorp, A, Almkvist, O. & Nygård, L. (2018). Challenge levels of everyday technologies as perceived over five years by older adults with mild cognitive impairment. International Psychogeriatrics. 30 (10), 1447-1454, doi.org/10.1017/S1041610218000285
- Kottorp, A., Malinowsky, C. Larsson Lund, M. & Nygård. L. (2018). Gender and diagnostic impact on everyday technology use – a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ). Disability & Rehabilitation, early online,22:1-7. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2018.1472816.
- Malinowsky, C & Kottorp, A. Tanemura, R., Nagao, T., Noda, K, Sagara, J., Rosenberg, L., Asaba, E. & Nygård, L. (2018). Everyday technology use among older adults in Sweden and Japan: A comparative study. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 25(6):446-456. doi: 10.1080/11038128.2017.1321684.
- Patomella, A-H., Ferreira, M., Rosenberg, L., Kottorp, A. & Nygård, L. (2018) Everyday technology use among older adults in Sweden and Portugal. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 25(6):436-445. doi.org/10.1080/11038128.2017.1311940
- Hedman, A., Kottorp, A. & Nygård, L. (2018). Patterns in everyday technology use and activity involvement in mild cognitive impairment: a five-year follow-up study. Ageing and Mental Health, 22(5):603-610. doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2017.1297361
- Walsh, R., Drasga, R., Lee, J., Leggett, C., Shapnick, H., & Kottorp, A. (2018). Activity engagement and everyday technology use among older adults in an urban area. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 72, 7204195040. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2018.031443
- Hedman, A., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (Ahead of print 2017). Everyday technology use related to activity involvement among people in cognitive decline. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(5):7105190040p1-7105190040p8. doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2017.027003
- Kaptain, R.J., Kottorp, A., Patomella, A.-H: & Helle, T. (2017). Inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the Danish version of the everyday technology use questionnaire. Scand J Occup Ther, 26:1-9. doi: 10.1080/11038128.2017.1395910. [Epub ahead of print]
- Malinowsky, C, Kottorp, A., Rosenberg, L., Wallin, A., Nordlund, A., Björklund, E., Melin, I., Pernevik, A. & Nygård, L. (2017) Differences in the use of everyday technology among persons with MCI, SCI and older adults without known cognitive impairment. International Psychogeriatrics, 29 (7), 1193-1200. doi: 10.1017/S1041610217000643
- Ryd, C., Nygård, L., Malinowsky, C., Öhman, A. & Kottorp, A. (2017)Can everyday technology use predict overall functional level among older adults with mild cognitive impairment or mild-stage Alzheimer’s disease? – A pilot study. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 31(1), 201-209. doi: 10.1111/scs.12330
- Hedman A, Nygård L, Malinowsky C, Almkvist O, Kottorp A. (2016). Changing everyday activities and technology use in mild cognitive impairment. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(2), 111-119. doi:10.1177/0308022615586800.
- Malinowsky, C. & Larsson Lund, M. (2016). The match between everyday technology in public space and the ability of working-aged people with ABI to use it. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(1) 26–34 doi: 10.1177/0308022614563943
- Nygård, L. & Rosenberg, L. (2016). How attention to everyday technology could contribute to modern occupational therapy. a focus group study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(8), 467-474. doi.org/10.1177%2F0308022615613354
- Kottorp A, Nygård L, Hedman A, Öhman A, Malinowsky C, Rosenberg L, Lindqvist E, & Ryd C (2016). Access to and use of everyday technology among older people: An occupational justice issue – but for whom? Journal of Occupational Science, 23(3), 382-388. doi: 10.1080/14427591.2016.1151457
- Malinowsky, C., Kottorp, A., Patomella, A. – H., Rosenberg, L. & Nygård, L. (2015). Changes in the technological landscape over time: Everyday technologies relevance and difficulty levels as perceived by older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Technology & Disability, 27(3), 91-101. doi: 10.3233/TAD-150431
- Malinowsky, C & Kottorp, A. Tanemura, R., Asaba, E., Nagao, T., Noda, K, Sagara, J., Bontje, P., Rosenberg, L. & Nygård, L. (2015). Validation of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire in a Japanese context. Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy, 26, 1-8. doi.org/10.1016/j.hkjot.2015.08.002
- Ryd, C., Nygård, L., Malinowsky, C., Öhman, A. & Kottorp, A. (2015). Associations between activities of daily living and everyday technology. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22(1), 33-42. doi:10.3109/11038128.2014.964307
- Fallahpour, M., Kottorp, A., Nygård, L. & Larsson Lund, M. (2015). Participation after acquired brain injury: Associations with everyday technology and activities in daily life. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22(5), 366-76. DOI: 10.3109/11038128.2015.1011229
- Hedman, A., Nygård, L., Almkvist, O., & Kottorp A. (2015). Amount and type of everyday technology use over time in older adults with cognitive impairment. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22(3), 196-206. doi.org/10.3109/11038128.2014.982172
- Nygård L, Kottorp A, Rosenberg L. (2015). Making use of research: Clinical views on an evaluation of everyday technology use. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22, 24-32.
- Fallahpour, M., Kottorp, A. Nygård, L. Larsson Lund M. (2014). Perceived difficulty in using everyday technology among persons with acquired brain injury of different severity: a comparison with controls. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 46 (7), 635-641. DOI: 10.2340/16501977-1818
- Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2014). Engagement in IADLs, social activities and use of everyday technology in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 77(11),565-573. DOI: 10.4276/030802214X14151078348512
- Larsson Lund, M., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2014). Perceived difficulty in the use of everyday technology: Relationships to everyday functioning in people with acquired brain injury with a special focus on returning to work. Disability and Rehabilitation, 36 (19), 1618-1625. doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2013.863388
- Malinowsky, C., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2014). Using a screening tool to evaluate potential use of e-health services for older people with and without cognitive impairment. Aging & Mental Health, 18 (3), 340-345 doi:10.1080/13607863.2013.832731
- Hällgren, M., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2014). Everyday technology use among people with intellectual disability – relevance, perceived difficulty, and influencing factors. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 21(3), 210-218. DOI: 10.3109/11038128.2013.862295
- Malinowsky, C., Kottorp, A. & Nygård, L (2013). Everyday technologies' levels of difficulty when used by older adults with and without cognitive impairment –Comparison of self-perceived versus observed difficulty estimates. Technology and Disability, 25 (3), 167-176.doi: 10.3233/TAD-130380
- Hedman, A., Nygård, L., Almkvist, O. & Kottorp, A. (2013). Patterns of functioning in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A two-year study focusing on everyday technology use. Aging & Mental Health, 17(6), 679-88.
Nygård, L., Pantzar, M., Uppgard, B. & Kottorp, A. (2012). Detection of disability in older adults with MCI or Alzheimer’s disease through assessment of perceived difficulty in using everyday technology. Aging &Mental Health,16 (3-4), 361-371.
- Kottorp, A. & Nygård, L. (2011). Development of a short form assessment for everyday technology used with older adults with MCI or Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 11(5), 647-655.
- Hällgren, M., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2011). Technology and everyday functioning in people with intellectual disabilities: A Rasch analysis of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(6), 610-620.
- Rosenberg, L., Kottorp, A., Winblad, B., & Nygård, L. (2009). Perceived difficulty in everyday technology use among older adults with or without cognitive deficits. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 16, 216-226.
- Rosenberg, L., Nygård, L. & Kottorp, A. (2009). Everyday Technology Usage (ETUQ) – evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new assessment of competence in technology use. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 29 (2), 52-62.