Carl Otto Schell

Carl Otto Schell

Phd Student
Visiting address: Tomtebodavägen 18A, 17177 Stockholm
Postal address: K9 Global folkhälsa, K9 GPH Hanson, 171 77 Stockholm

About me

  • Consultant, Specialist in Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Department of
    Medicine, Nyköping Hospital, Sörmland County, Sweden
    Research affiliations
    - Health Systems & Policy, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska
    - Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Eskilstuna, Uppsala University
    *Higher education degree*
    *1997-2004* M.D. Karolinska Institutet
    *Diploma / Other*
    *1995-1996 *Certificat pratique de Langue Française, 1er Degré,
    Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier III
    *1994-1997 *Studies in Law, Philosophy, French, Stockholm


  • My research interests are in the fields of global health, health systems,
    critical care and internal medicine. More specifically my focus is how to
    best use the potential of basic, feasible, low-cost actions in health
    care that are often overlooked in policy, research and medical practice.
    Current projects:
    - Essential Emergency and Critical Care: developing a research programme
    around the concept which is defined as /the care critically ill patients
    should receive in all hospitals in the world/.
    - The Critical Illness and Sepsis Prevalence and Outcome Study (CRISPOS). A
    point prevalence study in district and referral hospitals in Malawi, Sri
    Lanka and Sweden. All inpatients, regardless of speciality or location in
    the hospital, are examined on the same day. Vital signs are taken, and
    ongoing treatments recorded. Primary aims are to estimate the prevalence of
    critical illness, hospital mortality rates and the risk of death for
    critically ill patients. Secondary aims are an assessment of the quality of
    care and the predictive value of signs such as ability to walk, capillary
    refill time, early warning scores and danger signs.
    1. Schell, C. O., Wellhagen, A., Lipcsey, M., Kurland, L., Bjurling-Sjöberg,
    P., Lundborg, C. S., ... & Baker, T. (2023). The burden of critical illness
    among adults in a Swedish region–a population-based point-prevalence
    2. Khalid, K., Schell, C. O., Oliwa, J., English, M., Onyango, O., Mcknight,
    J., ... & Baker, T. (2023). Hospital readiness for the provision of care to
    critically ill patients in Tanzania-an indepth cross-sectional
    *Publications in scientific journals*
    1. Shah HA, Baker T, * Schell CO, * Kuwawenaruwa A, Awadh K, Khalid
    K, Kairu A, Were V, Barasa E, Baker P, Guinness L. Cost
    Effectiveness of Strategies for Caring for Critically Ill Patients with
    COVID-19 in Tanzania. PharmacoEconomics - open 2023
  • 2. Guinness L, Kairu A, Kuwawenaruwa A, Khalid K, Awadh K, Were
    V, Barasa E, Shah H, Baker P, * Schell CO, * Baker T. Essential
    emergency and critical care as a health system response to critical illness
    and the COVID19 pandemic: what does it cost?. Cost effectiveness and resource
    allocation : C/E 2023 21
  • 1 15-
    3. Mkumbo E, Willows TM, Onyango O, Khalid K, Maiba J, * Schell CO,
    * Oliwa J, McKnight J, Baker T. Same label, different patients:
    Health-workers' understanding of the label 'critical illness'. Frontiers in
    health services 2023 3
  • 1105078-
    4. Buowari DY, Owoo C, Gupta L, * Schell CO, * Baker T, EECC Network
    Group. Essential Emergency and Critical Care: A Priority for Health Systems
    Globally. Critical care clinics 2022 38
  • 4 639-656
    5. Hvarfner A, Al-Djaber A, Ekström H, Enarsson M, Castegren M,
    Baker T, * Schell CO. *Oxygen provision to severely ill COVID-19 patients at
    the peak of the 2020 pandemic in a Swedish district hospital. PloS one 2022
  • 1 e0249984-
    6. Kazibwe J, Shah HA, Kuwawenaruwa A, * Schell CO, * Khalid K, Tran
    PB, Ghosh S, Baker T, Guinness L. Resource use, availability and cost
    in the provision of critical care in Tanzania: a systematic review. BMJ open
    2022 12
  • 11 e060422-
    7. Kayambankadzanja RK, * Schell CO, * Warnberg MG, Tamras T,
    Mollazadegan H, Holmberg M, Alvesson HM, Baker T. Towards definitions
    of critical illness and critical care using concept analysis. BMJ OPEN 2022
  • 9 e060972-
    8. *Schell CO, * Khalid K, Wharton-Smith A, Oliwa J, Sawe HR, Roy
    N, Sanga A, Marshall JC, Rylance J, Hanson C, Kayambankadzanja
    RK, Wallis LA, Jirwe M, Baker T, EECC Collaborators, EECC
    Collaborators*. Essential Emergency and Critical Care: a consensus among
    global clinical experts. BMJ global health 2021 6
  • 9
    9. Kazibwe J, Shah HA, Kuwawenaruwa A, * Schell CO, * Khalid K, Tran
    PB, Ghosh S, Baker T, Guinness L. Resource availability, utilisation
    and cost in the provision of critical care in Tanzania: a protocol for a
    systematic review. BMJ open 2021 11
  • 8 e050881-
    10. Kayambankadzanja RK, * Schell CO, * Mbingwani I, Mndolo SK,
    Castegren M, Baker T. Unmet need of essential treatments for critical
    illness in Malawi. PloS one 2021 16
  • 9 e0256361-
    11. Baker T, * Schell CO, * Petersen DB, Sawe H, Khalid K, Mndolo
    S, Rylance J, McAuley DF, Roy N, Marshall J, Wallis L, Molyneux
    E. Essential care of critical illness must not be forgotten in the COVID-19
    pandemic. Lancet (London, England) 2020 395
  • 10232 1253-1254
    12. Kayambankadzanja RK, * Schell CO, * Namboya F, Phiri T, Banda-Katha
    G, Mndolo SK, Bauleni A, Castegren M, Baker T. The Prevalence and
    Outcomes of Sepsis in Adult Patients in Two Hospitals in Malawi. The American
    journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 2020 102
  • 4 896-901
    13. Hvarfner A, Blixt J, * Schell CO, * Castegren M, Lugazia ER,
    Mulungu M, Litorp H, Baker T. Vital Signs Directed Therapy for the
    Critically Ill: Improved Adherence to the Treatment Protocol Two Years after
    Implementation in an Intensive Care Unit in Tanzania. EMERGENCY MEDICINE
    INTERNATIONAL 2020 2020
  • 4819805-
    14. *Schell CO, * Beane A, Kayambankadzanja RK, Khalid K, Haniffa R,
    Baker T. Global Critical Care: Add Essentials to the Roadmap. Annals of
    global health 2019 85
  • 1
    15. Kayambankadzanja RK, * Schell CO, * Nsanjama G, Mbingwani I, Mndolo
    SK, Rylance J, Baker T. Inability to Walk Predicts Death among Adult
    Patients in Hospitals in Malawi. EMERGENCY MEDICINE INTERNATIONAL 2019 2019
  • 6586891-
    16. Haniffa R, Beane A, Baker T, Riviello ED, * Schell CO, * Dondorp
    AM. Development and internal validation of the Simplified Mortality Score for
    the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU). Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2018
  • 3 407-408
    17. *Schell CO, * Gerdin Wärnberg M, Hvarfner A, Höög A, Baker U,
    Castegren M, Baker T. The global need for essential emergency and critical
    care. Critical care (London, England) 2018 22
  • 1 284-
    18. *Schell CO, * Castegren M, Lugazia E, Blixt J, Mulungu M, Konrad
    D, Baker T. Erratum to: Severely deranged vital signs as triggers for acute
    treatment modifications on an intensive care unit in a low-income country.
    BMC research notes 2017 10
  • 1 365-
    19. *Schell CO, * Castegren M, Lugazia E, Blixt J, Mulungu M, Konrad
    D, Baker T. Severely deranged vital signs as triggers for acute treatment
    modifications on an intensive care unit in a low-income country. BMC research
    notes 2015 8
  • 313-
    20. Baker T, Blixt J, Lugazia E, * Schell CO, * Mulungu M, Milton
    A, Castegren M, Eriksen J, Konrad D. Single Deranged Physiologic
    Parameters Are Associated With Mortality in a Low-Income Country. Critical
    care medicine 2015 43
  • 10 2171-9
    21. Baker T, * Schell CO, * Lugazia E, Blixt J, Mulungu M, Castegren
    M, Eriksen J, Konrad D. Vital Signs Directed Therapy: Improving Care in
    an Intensive Care Unit in a Low-Income Country. PloS one 2015 10
  • 12 e0144801-
    22. Serrander M, * Schell CO. *[Experiences from various hospitals--too
    unequal care in Sweden]. Lakartidningen 2014 111
  • 14 624-5
    23. *Schell CO, * Reilly M, Rosling H, Peterson S, Ekström AM.
    Socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality: a worldwide study of 152
    low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Scandinavian journal of public
    health 2007 35
  • 3 288-97
    24. Mogensen L, Olsson M, * Schell CO. *[Marfan syndrome--diagnosis within
    many specialties]. Lakartidningen 2000 97
  • 5 464-8


  • *2014-18: *Director of Resident training program, Department of Internal
    Medicine, Nyköpings Hospital
    *2009-13*: Head of Internship Program, Department of Internal Medicine,
    Nyköping Hospital


All other publications


  • Phd Student, Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, 2023-2025

Degrees and Education

  • University Medical Degree, Karolinska Institutet, 2003

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