The "GENDER" study focused on sex differences in health and aging. Women have a longer life expectancy than men, but experience more chronic illness and report less physical and mental well-being in advanced ages.

Project description

It is unclear whether these differences depend on genetic differences, either that genetic effects are of differential importance in men and women or that there are different genes affecting health in men and women. A study of unlike-sexed twins born 1906-1925 was therefore collected to address these issues. The first questionnaire was sent out in 1994 and since then three health assessment with 4 years apart (1995-1997, 1999-2001, and 2003-2005) have been collected and a second questionnaire was sent out in 2007.

Financing: VR, SFR, Axel & Margaret Ax:son Johnsons Stiftelse för Allmännyttiga Ändamål

Project leader


Gold, C.H. (1997). Gender and health: A study of older opposite sex twins living in Sweden. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.

Gender and health: a study of older unlike-sex twins.

Gold C, Malmberg B, McClearn G, Pedersen N, Berg S
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2002 May;57(3):S168-76

Gender differences in heritability of depressive symptoms in the elderly.
Jansson M, Gatz M, Berg S, Johansson B, Malmberg B, McClearn G, et al
Psychol Med 2004 Apr;34(3):471-9