COMMUNITY

The COMMUNITY (COVID-19 Immunity) Study was initiated in April 2020 and comprises a large longitudinal cohort including 2149 healthcare workers and 118 COVID-19 patients. The overall aim is to obtain deep understanding of the generation and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 immunity (humoral and cellular) following primary infection and/or vaccination.

Inside COMMUNITY lab in Danderyd Hospital
The COMMUNITY lab at Danderyd Hospital Photo: Ludvig Kostyál

Background

Blood samples are obtained from all study participants every four months, and symptoms are mapped by continuous data collection through a smart-phone app system. Data on vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infections are obtained from national database registers, and qPCR screening studies are conducted in sub groups.

The majority of study participants are now vaccinated with either Pfizer's mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 or Astra Zeneca's adenovirus vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.

Key results so far

  • Healthcare workers are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most people who became infected with SARS-CoV-2 experienced mild or no symptoms. Early on, we were able to establish the correlation between loss of smell and taste and COVID-19. Nature Communications (PMID: 33033249)
  • One in ten low-risk individuals with mild COVID-19 report a diversity of long-term symptoms which disrupt work, social, and home life. JAMA (PMID: 33825846)
  • Broad and efficient SARS-CoV-2 immunity 8 months post mild infection. Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 (PMID: 34459525)
  • T cells are an important part of our immune system, but T cell tests remain of limited value in individual diagnostics. PLoS ONE 2021 (PMID: 34591918)
  • A single dose adenovirus-vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 elicits strong humoral immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 recovered healthcare workers. EBioMedicine (PMID: 34391088)
  • Considerable decline in neutralizing antibodies after both BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination over 3-7 months. Vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in higher antibody titers at all sampling time points when compared to SARS-CoV-2 naive vaccinees. Neutralizing antibody titers against all ten tested SARS-CoV-2 variants were at least 2 respectively 3-fold higher in SARS-CoV-2 recovered as compared to naive vaccinees following BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, respectively. MedRXiv 2021 (doi: 10.1101/2021.10.16.21264948)

The COMMUNITY project is financed by The National SciLifeLab-KAW COVID-19 Research through funding from Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. Jonas and Christina af Jochnick Foundation, Lundblad Family Foundation, Region Stockholm, Hjärtlung fonden and Jonas Söderquist scholarship. 

The COMMUNITY study team

Sebastian Havervall

M.D., Ph.D. Student

Max Gordon

M.D., Ph.D.

Ulrika Marking

M.D., Ph.D. Student

Nina Greilert

Project Manager, Research Nurse

Ann-Christine Salomonsson, Biomedical Laboratory Scientist

Katherina Aguilera, Biomedical Laboratory Scientist

Martha Kihlgren, Biomedical Laboratory Scientist

Lena Gabrielsson, Research Nurse

Maja Månsson, Research Nurse

Henry Ng, PhD student

KTH:

Sophia Hober

Peter Nilsson

Uppsala Universitet:

Mia Phillipson

Sara Mangsbo

Mikael Åberg

Karolinska institutet / Public health agency of Sweden:

Jonas Klingström

Kim Blom

COMMUNITY publications

An evaluation of a FluoroSpot assay as a diagnostic tool to determine SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses.
Mangsbo SM, Havervall S, Laurén I, Lindsay R, Jernbom Falk A, Marking U, Lord M, Buggert M, Dönnes P, Christoffersson G, Nilsson P, Hober S, Phillipson M, Klingström J, Thålin C
PLoS One 2021 ;16(9):e0258041

Antibody responses after a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in healthcare workers previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Havervall S, Marking U, Greilert-Norin N, Ng H, Gordon M, Salomonsson AC, Hellström C, Pin E, Blom K, Mangsbo S, Phillipson M, Klingström J, Hober S, Nilsson P, Åberg M, Thålin C
EBioMedicine 2021 Aug;70():103523

Robust humoral and cellular immune responses and low risk for reinfection at least 8 months following asymptomatic to mild COVID-19.
Havervall S, Ng H, Jernbom Falk A, Greilert-Norin N, Månberg A, Marking U, Laurén I, Gabrielsson L, Salomonsson AC, Aguilera K, Kihlgren M, Månsson M, Rosell A, Hellström C, Andersson E, Olofsson J, Skoglund L, Yousef J, Pin E, Lord M, Åberg M, Hedhammar M, Tegel H, Dönnes P, Phillipson M, Nilsson P, Klingström J, Mangsbo S, Hober S, Thålin C
J Intern Med 2021 Aug;():

Symptoms and Functional Impairment Assessed 8 Months After Mild COVID-19 Among Health Care Workers.
Havervall S, Rosell A, Phillipson M, Mangsbo SM, Nilsson P, Hober S, Thålin C
JAMA 2021 05;325(19):2015-2016

SARS-CoV-2 exposure, symptoms and seroprevalence in healthcare workers in Sweden.
Rudberg AS, Havervall S, Månberg A, Jernbom Falk A, Aguilera K, Ng H, Gabrielsson L, Salomonsson AC, Hanke L, Murrell B, McInerney G, Olofsson J, Andersson E, Hellström C, Bayati S, Bergström S, Pin E, Sjöberg R, Tegel H, Hedhammar M, Phillipson M, Nilsson P, Hober S, Thålin C
Nat Commun 2020 10;11(1):5064

Circulating Markers of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Are of Prognostic Value in Patients With COVID-19.
Ng H, Havervall S, Rosell A, Aguilera K, Parv K, von Meijenfeldt FA, Lisman T, Mackman N, Thålin C, Phillipson M
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 02;41(2):988-994

COVID-19 is Associated with an Acquired Factor XIII Deficiency.
von Meijenfeldt FA, Havervall S, Adelmeijer J, Lundström A, Magnusson M, Mackman N, Thalin C, Lisman T
Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar;():

Elevated factor V activity and antigen levels in patients with Covid-19 are related to disease severity and 30-day mortality.
von Meijenfeldt FA, Havervall S, Adelmeijer J, Lundström A, Magnusson M, Mackman N, Thalin C, Lisman T
Am J Hematol 2021 04;96(4):E98-E100

Patients With COVID-19 Have Elevated Levels of Circulating Extracellular Vesicle Tissue Factor Activity That Is Associated With Severity and Mortality-Brief Report.
Rosell A, Havervall S, von Meijenfeldt F, Hisada Y, Aguilera K, Grover SP, Lisman T, Mackman N, Thålin C
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 02;41(2):878-882

Prothrombotic changes in patients with COVID-19 are associated with disease severity and mortality.
von Meijenfeldt FA, Havervall S, Adelmeijer J, Lundström A, Rudberg AS, Magnusson M, Mackman N, Thalin C, Lisman T
Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2021 Jan;5(1):132-141

Response by Mackman et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Patients With COVID-19 Have Elevated Levels of Circulating Extracellular Vesicle Tissue Factor Activity That Is Associated With Severity and Mortality-Brief Report".
Mackman N, Hisada Y, Grover SP, Rosell A, Havervall S, von Meijenfeldt F, Aguilera K, Lisman T, Thålin C
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 06;41(6):e381-e382

Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is transiently elevated in COVID-19 and correlates with specific inflammatory and endothelial markers.
Lundström A, Ziegler L, Havervall S, Rudberg AS, von Meijenfeldt F, Lisman T, Mackman N, Sandén P, Thålin C
J Med Virol 2021 10;93(10):5908-5916

Sustained prothrombotic changes in COVID-19 patients 4 months after hospital discharge.
von Meijenfeldt FA, Havervall S, Adelmeijer J, Lundström A, Magnusson M, Mackman N, Thalin C, Lisman T
Blood Adv 2021 02;5(3):756-759