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Long term adverse effects from general anesthesia

Our group studies adverse effects from anesthesia.

We investigate insufficient anesthesia (anesthesia awareness) regarding incidence, consequences and the possibility to avoid awareness by means of neurophysiological monitoring.

We also study potential dose-dependent long term adverse effects from general anesthesia in terms of mortality and the risk of developing malignant disease.

Group members

Rolf Sandin MD, PhD, affiliated professor, group leader
Maj-Lis Lindholm R.N., PhD, Kalmar county council
Lars Brudin MD, PhD, Kalmar county council


We are continuing previous work on the relation between depth of anesthesia and the risk of developing malignant disease in patients with no previous cancer, by investigating the corresponding risk in patients with previous malignancy.

We also investigate age-dependent interindividual (cerebral) sensitivity to inhaled anesthetics.


The group leader (Rolf Sandin) also collaborates with professor Lars I Eriksson on projects concerning cognitive function related to anesthesia and surgery in infancy (see projects headed by Lars I Eriksson for details and collaborators).

Financial support

Research in our group is supported by Forskningsrådet i Sydöstra Sverige (FORSS).


Malignant disease within 5 years after surgery in relation to duration of sevoflurane anesthesia and time with bispectral index under 45.
Lindholm M, Granath F, Eriksson L, Sandin R
Anesth. Analg. 2011 Oct;113(4):778-83

Mortality within 2 years after surgery in relation to low intraoperative bispectral index values and preexisting malignant disease.
Lindholm M, Träff S, Granath F, Greenwald S, Ekbom A, Lennmarken C, et al
Anesth. Analg. 2009 Feb;108(2):508-12

Late psychological symptoms after awareness among consecutively included surgical patients.
Samuelsson P, Brudin L, Sandin R
Anesthesiology 2007 Jan;106(1):26-32

Reduction in the incidence of awareness using BIS monitoring.
Ekman A, Lindholm M, Lennmarken C, Sandin R
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004 Jan;48(1):20-6

Awareness during anaesthesia: a prospective case study.
Sandin R, Enlund G, Samuelsson P, Lennmarken C
Lancet 2000 Feb;355(9205):707-11

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