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Interferon-β (Avonex, Rebif, Betaseron, Extavia)

- Interferon-β is a first-line therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

- It balances the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory agents in the brain, and reduces the number of inflammatory cells that cross the blood–brain barrier.

- It is administered through intramuscular or subcutaneous injection once per week.

- In Europe, sales in 2016 amounted to €4.3 billion.

- It has an immunogenicity rate of 28% to 47% for IFNbeta-1b-Betaseron and Extavia, 12% to 28 % to IFNbeta-1a-Rebif, and 2% to 6% to IFNbeta-1a-Avonex

Labs that test for drug level:

Bulgarian Academy of Science
San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital

Labs that test for ADA titre:

Karolinska Institutet
Innsbruck Medical University
San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital
Bulgarian Academy of Science
Regional University Hospital in Málaga Spain (IBIMA)