Facts about suicide
The suicide rate among young people is not declining
- Some 40-50 people under the age of 20 take their own lives in Sweden every year, of which around five are under 15.
- Over the past fifteen years, the suicide rate in Sweden has declined by about 20 per cent, as it has in much of the EU, The trend does not, however, apply to young people, for whom the rate has remained stable for many decades.
- Suicide is the leading cause of death among men between the ages of 15 and 44 in Sweden.
Some claims about suicide: True or False?
People who often talk about suicide will not attempt it.
False! Most people who commit suicide do talk about it, more or less explicitly. But the people around them don't always get the message.
Talking or writing about suicide is risky - you should let sleeping dogs lie.
False! Research shows that it can work preventatively since it can make the person aware that they need to seek help.
Suicidal thoughts are common amongst teenagers.
True! It's relatively common for teenagers to think about suicide and existential issues. But if such thoughts lead to a suicide attempt, they must be taken extremely seriously as an expression of severe emotional problems.
Teenage boys are less likely to talk about suicide before committing the act.
True! Boys often keep their feelings to themselves and also commit suicide more often. It's twice as common for young men to take their lives than young women.
Most young people do not convey their thoughts of suicide to adults.
True! Young people often turn to their peers with their problems. It's also not uncommon for then to find it easier to talk to adults other than their own parents.
Suicide happens suddenly without warning.
False! The suicide process in adults is often long and drawn out. But in young people it can more often occur suddenly, and so it's important to be extremely vigilant for signs of mental ill-health among them.
Suicide is often preceded by an "up" period.
True! A depressed person is often unable to act. But once the depression wears off, their energy can return, bringing with it the greater risk of suicide.
Suicide is more likely in people who have previously attempted it.
True! Research shows a strong and lasting correlation between previous suicide attempts and completed suicide.
Suicide is more common around birthdays and other festive occasions.
True! A thesis published by Karolinska Institutet has shown that young people between the ages of 10 and 24 were more likely to commit acts of suicide over a two-week period close to their birthdays.
Suicide is often based on rational thoughts about the value of life.
False! Most acts of suicide take place under the influence of a mental disorder or drug abuse. Many suicide attempts are also made impulsively, before the person has had time to think things through.
It's impossible to stop a person who's made their mind up to commit suicide.
False! 85-90 per cent of those who have made serious suicide attempts do not complete it. Many suicide survivors ask themselves: "What was I thinking?"
Having a stomach pump is so nasty that it deters people from taking new overdoses.
False! A person close to suicide who takes an overdose doesn't reason like that. The only thought they have is a desire to escape their anguish or pain, where an overdose is the only way out.
Sweden has one of the world's highest suicide rates.
False! Sweden's suicide statistics are comparable to the rest of Europe. On a 90-nation list of percentage suicide rates amongst people between the ages of 15 and 19, Sweden ranks no. 57.
Everyone who tries to take their own life must be sick.
True! There's almost always some form of mental illness behind suicide, but it can also be triggered in young people by events that, to an adult, might seem trivial.
- "Psykisk ohälsa och risk för självmordshandlingar bland ungdomar" by Britta Alin Åkerman from Barn i utsatta livssituationer.
- Oxford textbook of suicidology and suicide prevention. A global perspective by Danuta Wasserman and Camilla Wasserman, Oxford University Press 2009.
- Swedish National Prevention of Suicide and Mental Ill-health (NASP).
Warning signals, protective factors, risk factors
- Poor sleeping habits.
- Poor/abnormal eating habits.
- Extreme behavioural changes (e.g. a deterioration in school performance).
- Talk about suicide.
- Drug and alcohol abuse.
- Lack of interest in leisure activities.
- Signs of depression (e.g. feeling down, irritation, concentration problems and low self-esteem).
- Positive self-esteem.
- Communicative skills.
- Good lifestyle as regards diet, exercise, sleep, alcohol and smoking.
- Good family relations.
- Good relations to other adults.
- Good relations with peers.
- Ability to find work.
- Ability to find a place to live.
- Ability to engage in physical and cultural activities.
- Low self-esteem.
- Drug and alcohol abuse.
- Excessive responsibility-taking.
- Relational problems in the family/insecure childhood.
- Friends and relatives with mental problems.
- Difficulties finding work.
- Difficulties finding a place to live.
- The absence of a sense of belonging.
Advice to adults living or working around young people
- Always take time to listen to young people when they want to talk, even if it's in the middle of the night or when you're busy.
- Let them know that they can and should talk about their feelings.
- Don't belittle their feelings by saying things like "a lot of people feel that".
- Don't be afraid to talk openly about difficult emotions and experiences.
- Take their depressive symptoms seriously.
- Promote good relations with the school/parents.
- School staff should show that they care about young people by finding out the reasons for their truancy, and by making time to talk to those who show signs of depression.
- Include information about suicide and mental health in all school subjects (e.g. the effects of stress on the body in biology classes, existential issues in Swedish/English classes and suicide statistics in maths classes).
Expert body set up to reduce the suicide rate
The Swedish National Prevention of Suicide and Mental Ill-health (NASP), a department under KI's Department of Public Health Sciences, has been the national and regional expert body for suicide prevention since 1995.
One of NASP's missions is to permanently reduce the proportion of attempted and completed suicides and to raise the level of knowledge about the subject. NASP also conducts studies, advises the government and public authorities, and runs courses on suicide prevention for teachers, psychiatrists and other professionals working with children.
SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe)
is a project designed to produce guidelines for the most effective and cost-efficient way to prevent suicide among young people. By involving twelve EU countries with a wide geographic and cultural spread, the project hopes to obtain results that can be assumed to apply to all European countries. The project, which is being led by Professor Danuta Wasserman, head of NASP at Karolinska Institutet, commenced in January 2009 and will continue for three years.
is an EU project designed to identify the links between truancy and mental ill-health in ten European countries, in order to better understand why school pupils take unauthorised time out of school, and how the school truancy and drop-out rates can be reduced.
SUPREME (Suicide Prevention by Internet and Media-based Mental Health Promotion)
is an EU project which aims, amongst other things, to create an interactive website for people between the ages of 14 and 24. It is hoped that the website, which is also run by young people (under the supervision of experts), will raise awareness of and reduce taboos surrounding suicide, and increase their interest in mental health. It will also offer the expert help and support of professionals. The project is led by NASP at Karolinska Institutet and covers seven other European countries.