Rising of blood glucose levels leads to release of insulin by beta cells. This process requires oxygen consumption. When beta cells are challenge to release high amounts of insulin, oxygen levels can become limiting leading to cellular hypoxia.
In response to hypoxia, the transcription factor HIF-1a is activated and upregulates the expression of genes that regulate the adaptation to cellular hypoxia.
The occurrence of cellular hypoxia on beta cells will impact beta cell function and survival.
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Acute hypoxia induces apoptosis of pancreatic β-cell by activation of the unfolded protein response and upregulation of CHOP.
Cell Death Dis 2012 Jun;3():e322